No Growth without Equity?: Inequality, Interests, and Competition in Mexico
by Palgrave Macmillan , World Bank
Edited by Michael Walton , Santiago Levy
Published February 2009
Equity and growth are central concerns for development. They are often treated as separate questions, both in economic and social analysis and development policy. This separation is neither good theory nor good practice. This book examines the relationship between equity and growth in Mexico. The central thesis is that Mexico’s poor growth performance of the last twenty five years is intimately linked to inequity. Specific inequalities in power, wealth, and status have created and sustained economic institutions and polices that both tend to perpetuate these inequalities and are sources of inefficiencies and lack of dynamism in the economy.
No Growth without Equity? analyzes this thesis at two levels: first, exploring the links between inequality, interests, and economic growth; second, providing specific examples as to how rent-seeking behavior in key sectors of Mexico’s economy produce inefficiencies that are a source of low growth and income concentration. Mexico’s growth problem is unlikely to be solved if these underlying inequalities are not tackled; this has large implications for policy design.
Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Poverty
by Ariel Fiszbein , Norbert Schady
Published February 2009 by World Bank ISBN: 0-8213-7352-8
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers' actions. That is, the government only transfers the money to persons who meet certain criteria. These criteria may include enrolling children into public schools, getting regular check-ups at the doctor's office, receiving vaccinations, or the like. They have been hailed as a way of reducing inequality and helping households break out of a vicious cycle whereby poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. Do these and other claims make sense? Are they supported by the available empirical evidence? This volume seeks to answer these and other related questions. Specifically, it lays out a conceptual framework for thinking about the economic rationale for CCTs; it reviews the very rich evidence that has accumulated on CCTs,; it discusses how the conceptual framework and the evidence on impacts should inform the design of CCT programs in practice; and it discusses how CCTs fit in the context of broader social policies. The authors show that there is considerable evidence that CCTs have improved the lives of poor people and argue that conditional cash transfers have been an effective way of redistributing income to the poor. They also recognize that even the best-designed and managed CCT cannot fulfill all of the needs of a comprehensive social protection system. They therefore need to be complemented with other interventions, such as workfare or employment programs, and social pensions.
"If we are serious about tackling poverty, we must get serious about trying new things. Conditional cash transfer programs have proven effective in countries across the globe and New York is proud to be the first American city to experiment with the innovative idea. This book provides an up-to-date assessment of CCT programs based on impact evaluations studies from across the world. We look forward to adding our evaluation results to an important body of research, and continuing our work with partners worldwide to reach our shared goal of breaking cycles of intergenerational poverty."
-Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg
Mayor, New York City
"This book provides a careful and thorough assessment of the knowledge accumulated so far on conditional cash transfer programs; it will inform and orient academic economists and policy makers when thinking about starting, scaling-up and evaluating programs of this nature. Further, the book also raises issues that, in my view, are very relevant and have so far been under-emphasized, namely the need to place these programs within the broader context of countries' social policies. Fiszbein and Schady have produced a very valuable and timely work for all interested in poverty."
Vicepresident, Interamerican Development Bank
Байгаль орчны сэтгүүлчийн гарын авлага
Зохиогч: Ц.Адьяасүрэн, Г.Сумъяа
Орчуулсан: Н.Алтанцэцэг, Г.Сумъяа
Байгаль орчны шинэчлэл-2 төслийн хүрээнд хэвлэв.
Энэхүү товхимолд байгаль орчны нарийн төвөгтэй асуудлыг тайлбарлаж, мэдээлэхэд сэтгүүлч хүн юуг анхаарах ёстойг оруулахыг эрмэлзсэн НҮБ-ын Ази, Номхон далайн эдийн засгийн комиссоос хэвлүүлсэн гарын авлагыг орчуулж, бас нэмж засамжлан Та бүхний гар дээр хүргэж байна.
Байгаль орчны асуудал чухал ач холбогдолтой болох нь, байгаль орчны сэтгүүлчийн үүрэг роль, байгаль орчны сэтгүүл гэж юу вэ?, сурвалжлага, ярилцлага хийх, мэдээллийг энгийн, хялбаршуулах, байгаль орчны сэтгүүл зүйд тулгарах дарамт шахалт, байгаль орчны тулгамдсан асуудал зэрэг сэдвийг хамарсан ба мөн байгаль орчны сэтгүүл зүйн тестийг мөн оруулжээ.
Эдгээр номуудыг Нээлттэй Нийгэм Форумын Хөгжлийн Мэдээллийн Төвд ирж үзэхийг урьж байна.
Хаяг: Сүхбаатар дүүрэг, Жамъян гүний гудамж 5/1, Нээлттэй Нийгэм Форумын байр, утас 313207